# How Does The Net Realizable Value Method Allocate Joint Costs?

By-products emerge incidentally from the production of the main products. Joint products are not produced just inciden­tally, their production is definite. Those of co- products, however, are within production control. Rice and sugarcane, which are co-products, produced on different portions of the same land, and by different processes of cultivation, may be altered with regard to quantities produced. If milk is put to the manufacturing process, it yields Butter and Butter-milk (By-product). In the case of Sugar Industry, sugar cane is the raw-material and the outputs are, Sugar , Molasses and Bagasse (By-products). For example, a spoon of sugar, if used for Coffee, is not available for Tea.

If any one of the products produced is of higher value than other products, it is called the main product. This method is followed when the by-product obtained from the process can be reused as raw materials in some other process of the company. The market value of materials which are similar to the by-product is the replacement price. The replacement price of the by-product is credited to the process account.

Then divide them into proportions of sales value that add up to 100%. Then multiply the percentage proportions by the total production cost to yield the allocated cost per primary product type. Allocates joint costs to joint products on the basis of the relative weight, volume, or other physical measure at the splitoff point of total production of the products. -Inventories are carried at estimated NPV, and income on each product is reorganized when production is completed. Joint products are generated simultaneously by a single manufacturing process using common input, and being substantially equal in value.

These products are not identical, but they share the same production process up to what is called the splitoff point. They are, in a sense, accidental results of the production process. The refinery takes crude oil and refines it into a substance that may be used for auto gasoline, motor oil, heating oil, or kerosene. All of these various outputs come from a single input – crude oil. In both of these examples, a single input yields multiple outputs.

• Joint products are two or more outputs other than by-products, that are generated from a single production process that uses common inputs.
• Chips are classified as standard or deluxe on the basis of their density .
• Products that share the same inputs or that have complementary productive processes offer great opportunities for economies of scope through diversification.
• The balanced scorecard provides a balanced use of financial and non-financial performance measures to evaluate short-run and long-run performance in a single report.

Therefore a company can have multiple outputs with only one product having a positive sales value. The split-off point is the point at which joint production stops and processing for separate products begins. The relative-sales-value method allocates costs based on the relative sales value of each resulting from a joint-production process. Get the joint-production costs, which are normally available internally. Oregon Lumber will decide whether or not to process Grade B lumber further regardless of how joint costs are allocated to Grade A and Grade B lumber.

As for revenue, the allocation, sales variances, customer profitability analysis and production variances are covered. The balanced scorecard, a useful tool for performance measures and control with four perspectives is introduced and discussed. Total quality management is using quality as a competitive weapon. Availability of a common basis accounting to allocate joint costs to products. The sales value at split off method (as well as other market-based methods) has a common basis to allocate joint costs to products, which is revenue. In contrast, the physical-measure at split off method may lack an easily identifiable common basis to allocate joint costs to individual products.

## Xyz Company Makes Two Products, W And P, In A Joint Process At The Split

Joint costs are the costs of a production process that resulted in multiple products simultaneously. The objective of joint costing is to allocate joint costs to individual products at the split-off point. Ø The manufacturing process and raw material need is common up to a specific stage of manufacturing. After this stage is crossed, additional processing becomes dissimilar for each product. The expenditure acquired up to the split off point is termed as joint cost and the apportionment of similar to different products is the major purpose of the joint product accounting. For example, kerosene, fuel oil, gas­olene and other oil products are derived from crude oil. Joint costs are total costs incurred upto the point of separation.

In this method, allocation bases for both the variable and fixed cost pools are calculated for the IS department. As in the single-rate method, variable costs are assigned based on the budgeted variable cost per hour of RM500 for actual hours used by each department. A federal law that has recently been passed taxes crude oil at 30% of operating income. No new tax is to be paid on natural gas liquids or natural gas.

To study the effect on costs and profits due to change in the production of joint and by-products for the ultimate aim of price fixation. Of course, the Co-products also use, to a greater extent, the same input factors. Further, the manufacturing processes differ slightly from one Co-product to another Co-product. They are usually produced one after another in the same manufacturing joint products are outputs from common inputs and a common production process. process. If at all the company wants to increase the output of a Joint Product, it has to increase the quantity of input factors. This results in more number of units of not only the Joint Product whose output the company wishes to increase but also the output of other Joint Products. There may be a situation in which the same input results in more than one article as the output.

The above cost hierarchy is similar to product cost hierarchy except that it focuses on customers instead of products. Human resource management costs including recruitment and on-going employee training and development. The demand for corporate human resource management costs varies with total salary and labour costs in each division. The salary and labour costs are RM60,000,000 in the Northern division and RM40,000,000 in the Central division. Costs are allocated in proportion to the cost object’s ability to bear costs. For example, more-profitable divisions have a greater ability to absorb corporate headquarters’ costs.

In such cases one product cannot be produced without the production of other product or products and the management has no control over the ratio in which the different end products come out of the process. In manufacturing industries the input factors are usually processed at different stages before getting the end product. Smart Enterprise incurs no stock-out recording transactions costs under its current purchasing policy, because demand and purchase-order lead times are known with certainty. However, Smart Enterprise is concerned that lower inventory levels from implementing JIT purchasing will lead to more stock-outs. Smart Enterprise expects to incur stockout costs on 100 units of cameras per year under the JIT purchasing policy.

## The Physical Quantities Method

In a blast furnace, joint products are pig iron, slag and blast furnace gas. The iron is a precursor of steel, the slag can be sold as construction material, and the gas is used to reheat Cowper stoves. With variable process parameters of the iron smelting, the proportions are slightly variable. The processing of crude oil can result in the joint products naphtha, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel, heavy fuel oil and asphalt, as well as other petrochemical derivatives. The refinery process has variable proportions depending on the distilling temperatures and cracking intensity. A co-product is produced along with with the main product and carries equal importance as the main product. Whereas a by-product is not a planned product and is produced after carrying out the process eg.

It is important for all organisations to determine which product, customer, program or department is profitable. Managers need to analyse its operations and make decisions on allocation of resources towards serving its most profitable customers.

Sales value at split off is the best measure of the benefits received as a result of joint processing relative to all other methods of allocating joint costs. It is a meaningful basis for allocating joint costs because generating revenues is the reason why a company incurs joint costs in the first place. It is also sometimes possible to vary the physical mix of final output and thereby produce more or less market value by incurring more joint costs. In such cases, there is a clear causal link between total cost and total output value, thereby further validating the use of the sales value at split off method. To use this method, simply divide the total production cost by the appropriate measure of output volume to yield the cost per unit of output. Unit 3 presents general cost allocation process and cost allocation to departments.

Till the point of separation, joint products are indivisible. Further, the quantities of joint products are fixed and unalterable. Besides the Joint Products, the companies also obtain a number of By-products.

## Joint Product & By

We cannot identify all the products as a primary or secondary product. For example in Sugar industry bagasse emerge in crushing process and molasses emerge in refining process. Split-off point is important in determining joint cost and its apportionment over various products. Raw materials introduced in a process pass as a single product up to a certain stage.

## What Are Joint Common Costs?

Scrap is residual material which arises in the course of manufacturing processes. Normal spoilage is spoilage built into a specific manufacturing process. The costs of normal spoilage should be included as an integral part of the costs of good units produced. Note that each producing department is charged the same amount for variable costs under the single-rate and dual-rate methods (RM500 × Actual hours of use). If there are few divisions in a company, corporate costs are initially allocated to divisions and then to indirect-cost pools. There are several choices to make when accumulating and allocating corporate costs to divisions. Some companies allocate all corporate costs to divisions because corporate costs are incurred to support division activities.

## How Does The Sales Value At Split Off Method Allocate Joint Costs?

The products that emerge from the same input and from the same operation may be of equal importance or unequal importance. In other words, multiple products characterise some industries or manufacturing operation. If the variance is material, it should be allocated based on the relative values of WIP, FG, and CoGS.

The production of butter, cheese, and cream from milk is also another example of a joint product. Some outputs of the joint product may require further process after the split point.

## Difference Between Joint Products And By Products

The incremental revenue-allocation method, with bus ticket ranked as the primary product. However, the single-rate method allocates fixed costs of the support department based on actual usage, whereas the dual-rate method allocates fixed costs based on budgeted usage. However, fixed costs are allocated normal balance based on budgeted fixed costs per hour and the budgeted number of hours for each department. The budgeted fixed-cost rate is RM400 per hour (RM1,000,000 ÷ 2,500 hours). The fixed costs are effectively allocated in advance as a lump-sum based on budgeted hours to be used by both producing departments.

Joint cost is the cost incurred for all the products produced in the process. Main objective of joint product costing is determining the cost of production of joint products. This involves apportionment of joint costs more accurately over the joint products. Spoilage, reworked units and scrap need management effort and control. This unit will explain process costing and spoilage and accounting for scrap. In costing operations, inventory management and just-in-time are discussed where the Economic Order Quantity model, Just-in-Time production and purchasing, and backflush costing are elaborated. Managing goods for sale in retail organisations and difficulties with accounting data for managing goods for sale are also discussed.

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